Mechanical low back pain (LBP) is an activity related pain where in most cases etiology is unknown. It varies with physical activity and time, (1) usually located in the lumbosacral region, buttocks and thighs with no radiation to foot or toes. With this article, we shall try to understand its signs, associated risk factors and review literature on mobilization techniques as treatment option.
LBP is a big problem, due to lumbar column anatomy position and its posture during gait and standing position. (2) Sometimes it may consist of nonspecific injury of the lumbar column. Mechanical backache represents almost 85% of the patients who report the problem of simple backache. It affects almost 70 to 80% of American working adults at some point in their lives, (3) resulting in estimated 1.3 billion days a year loss from work. (4, 5) Many patients are unable to return to their daily normal life after they suffer such pain. (6)
Common finding of mechanical LBP are paraspinous muscle tenderness or spasm. (2) Pain is confined locally to low back which is exacerbated by forward flexion and relieved by rest. (3) Patient may list to one side. Various risk factors have been identified including individual factors like young age, sex (pregnancy), etc.; occupational factors like stress, working hours, vibrations, etc.; personal factors like overweight, smoking and psychological factors. (7, 8)
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