The ankle and foot have undergone a number of evolutionary adaptations, which makes it very well designed for bipedal locomotion. First, the foot has become plantigrade, which allows most of the sole to be a weight-bearing surface. Second, the great toe has come to lie in a position with the other toes and, because of the relative immobility of the first metatarsal at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, is now relatively nonprehensile. Third, the metatarsals and phalanges have progressively shrunk and become small in comparison to the hypertrophied tarsus. Fourth, the medial side of the foot has become larger and stronger than that of any other primate (Schiowitz,1991). Being bipedal the entire body force moves through the ankle joint and foot during locomotion. As more force transfers through the ankle and foot they are more prone for numerous mechanical problems. In this article some of the common problems of ankle and foot will be discussed along with the management involving manual therapy and taping techniques.
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