For over half a century, foot types have been classified on the basis of the three arch types: 1) Flat/ Over-Pronated foot; 2) Normal/ Neutral foot; 3) High/Supinated foot. Runners used to be advised to check their footprints (often easily assessed by observing the mark a wet foot leaves behind) and pick the corresponding shoe - assuring them that this ensures ideal alignment and minimizes injury risk.
Many static measures have since been developed to describe foot posture and subsequently investigated as possible predictors of dynamic foot motion. Measures have included frontal plane calcaneal angle (frequently referred to as rearfoot angle), navicular drop, medial arch angle and arch height, Foot Posture Index, etc. However, none have consistently been found to be accurate predictors of dynamic foot motion in the stance phase. In recent years, our understanding of how the foot functions in walking/ running is still constantly evolving - And so is the prediction, classification, treatment and corrective techniques for various pathomechanical foot conditions.
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