1. Subin Solomen, Professor, EMS Memorial Coperative Hospital and Research Centre, Perinthalmanna, Kerala
2. Pravon Aaron, Professor and Principal, Padmashree Institute of Physiotherapy, Bangalore
Published by: PEEPEE Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd.
No.of Pages: 250
Biophysics related to therapeutic electricity is well explained in a simple manner.
All currents explained in detail i.e Faradic, Galvanic, Direct current, Iontophoresis, Sinusoidal, Diadynamic, HVPGS, Russian, Rebox, Microcurrent, TENS & IFT
Pain gate theories explained in simple manner
Different types of TENS well explained
Contains Hotspot: Answers for several questions which were not explained well
- Why faradic currents stimulate nerves and galvanic currents stimulate muscles?
- Why a nerve is easily stimulated first followed by a muscle?
- Why in faradic current application cathode (black) is active electrode and in galvanic either cathode (black) or anode (red) can be active electrode
- Why galvanic currents (long duration pulses) are more painful compared to faradic currents (short duration pulses) in nerve-muscle stimulation?
- How can we increase discrimination between sensory and motor response?
- Why steady state direct current cannot be used to for NEMS?
- Why short duration pulse is less painful compared to long duration pulse?
- Why alternating currents are not useful for nerve stimulation?
- Why short duration pulses intensity has to be increased?
- Why denervated muscles are sensitive to long duration pulses?
- Why large diameter fibers require less current to activate compared to small diameter fibers with electrical stimulation?
- Why larger fibers are recruited and fired compared to smaller fibers?
- What are the characteristics of an electrical impulse that influence its ability to stimulate nerve fibers?
- Will electrical stimulation evoke a motor response in a muscle where nerve supply is intact, by a direct effect on the muscle fibers or indirectly via excitation of motor nerve fibers? If so, why?
- Why Rectangular pulses are preferred for a normally innervated muscle?
- Why it is not impossible to elicit a motor response without also electrically activating sensory fibers?
- Why HVPC is more effective in edema management compared to other currents?
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