An Overview of Motor Control-Physiotherapy Perspective

Words represent your intellect. The sound, gesture and movement represent your feeling.

As physiotherapy professionals we need to understand that the patients we handle need to be acquainted and/or reoriented with how it feels to move or to do the task at hand. Not only that we cannot rely on their inherent perceptions alone given their disabilities they themselves cannot rely on their own selves alone. And so they need us. That is where appropriate understanding of motor control, motor learning and motor development and its clinical implications becomes imperative for a physiotherapist. In his article on “How Posture and Movements are governed”, Vernon B. Brooks, a neuroscientist, has beautifully mentioned the relationship between physiotherapists and motor control.  “As a neuroscientist, I am gratified to see the burgeoning interest of physical therapists in the rapidly maturing science of motor control. I regard physical therapy as an emerging applied science of motor control and motor control as one of the basic sciences of physical therapy. ”

This issue of PHYSIOTIMES would familiarize the reader with motor control - its evolution, various theories and their clinical implications, its role in neurological and musculoskeletal dysfunctions, motor development and motor learning. The issue also features a vivid account of Electromyography and its application in Motor Function, Learning and understanding Motor Control. The issue also provides a critical view of the role of strengthening exercise for spastic patients. Aquatic therapy is gaining prominence amongst private and institutional physiotherapy practioners. Rightly so, from this issue onwards, we have started a series of articles under ‘Aqua Corner’ on aquatic therapy and its clinical relevance in various conditions authored by C.G.Prasanth, who is a certified Halliwick Therapy & BRRM practitioner. The issue also features article on manual therapy for non-surgical soft tissue lesions of the hand and wrist using Cyriax and Mulligan approaches. Continued from the last issue on Oversees Career pathway for physiotherapists, wherein we had covered USA and UK, the student corner narrates the procedure for pursuing graduate studies in Canada.  Balancing work and family life is not an easy task, especially for the busy practioners. A special article in this issue gives you handy tips to manage your personal and professional life happily.

"COVER STORY: An Overview Of Motor Control: A Physiotherapy Perspective - SAGAR K NAIK & KINA S NAIK"

Movement is critical aspect of life. Movement is essential to our ability to move, to communicate, to accomplish fine tasks, to earn our living.  Further, human movement is the underlying component to physiotherapy, as most abnormal musculoskeletal, neurological, and many other illnesses will either affect or be affected by human movement.  The theories and models developed by kinesiologists are frequently used by physiotherapists to analyze and solve movement problems in patients. ... Read More

EXPERT OPINION: Electromyography In Understanding Motor Function, Learning And Motor Control - DR. M.G. MOKASHI

PHYSIOTIMES intended that Prof. Manik Shahani the first Professor in  Physiotherapy of India,  would author a leading article as a part of his life-time interest in electro-physiology, which did not materialize. We, at Physiotherapy Dept. of AIIPMR Mumbai, were one of the earliest groups in India, to be familiar with EMG as early in 1964. It was broad vision of the founder-Director, and pioneer in medical rehabilitation in India, late Dr. M V Sant.

  Rather than updat... Read More

PHYSIO SPEAKS: An Interview With a clinician and academician par excellence - DR. RAJU PARASHER

Dr. Parasher has been working as a clinical physiotherapist for over 30 years. His primary area of interest has been neuro-physiotherapy, but over the years he has developed an interest and expertise in most aspects of physiotherapy practice such as musculoskeletal, sports, gerontology. His experience as a clinical therapist has spanned several countries around the world, including India, Sweden and the US. Currently he is located in New Jersey, USA, but usually travels every quarter to India... Read More

REVIEW ARTICLE: Spasticity And Motor Control: Does Strengthening Exercise Increase Spasticity In Spastic Patients? - SAGAR NAIK

Most Physiotherapists (both clinicians and academicians) including students have argued against the use of strengthening exercises for spastic muscles in individuals with central nervous system (CNS) disorders, especially stroke and cerebral palsy. Rationale for this argument appears to be multifaceted. First, therapists were discouraged by the relatively less functional response to strength training in patients with spasticity compared with those with polio (Semans, 1958). Second, clinicians... Read More

GUEST COLUMN: Motor Control And Relearning Following Neurological Dysfunctions & Its Clinical Implications - DR. JOHN SOLOMON

Normal movement pattern is influenced by various systems of the body and the environment.1 With regard to the human body, we require a normal sensory system, various regions of the Central Nervous System (CNS) that plan and sends the signals necessary to execute a movement and the musculoskeletal system that performs the movement. 2  Neurological dysfunctions can alter any of the above mentioned function and thereby affect voluntary movement leading to an inability to perform activities.... Read More

SPECIAL ARTICLE: Motor Control for Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions - DR.BHAVNA MHATRE

Impairment of muscle performance is commonly treated by physiotherapist and is usually described as strength deficit that is capacity to develop maximum force during a single contraction.  The relative strength, endurance, and control of muscles are considered more important during a co-ordinated movement than overall strength of a muscle or a muscle group (Jull and Janda). Co-ordinated movement involves multiple joints and muscles that are activated at appropriate time and with the corr... Read More

"HEALING HANDS: An Introduction To The Examination & Treatment Of Non-Surgical Soft Tissue Lesions Of The Hand And Wrist-Integrating Approaches Of Cyriax And Mulligan- RUSSELL WOODMAN & DON REEORDAN"

Work related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) of the wrist and hand are relatively common.  In 2001, a US Department of Labor Department reported that of the 355, 344 cases of hand injuries, 33,431 were sprains and strains of the wrist and hand, 26,794 were cases of carpal tunnel syndrome. Tendinitis (tendinopathy) and trigger finger accounted for 4, 896 cases. The department states that WSMD’s of the wrist and hand are associated with the longest absences from work and are, therefo... Read More

AQUA CORNER: Aquatic Therapy, An Introduction To The World Of Water & Its Therapeutic Benefits - C. G. PRASHANTH

Water, when we hear the word, it generates mixed emotions in everyone. Some feel pure joy, some feel fear, and some imagine a beautiful sea, a clear blue colored ocean or water park or a picnic place nearby a river or a pond.Water in India is viewed with more value than any other place because of the sacredness it carries to wash away all our sins. The river Ganges being the prime example, there are many holy ponds, rivers, where taking a dip itself is considered to pure our souls.

... Read More

"FEATURE ARTICLE: Threading Down The Double Edged Sword, Balancing Family And Careers - SHRUTI S. & KRISHNA CHANDAR"

The ultimate skill of any professional is to balance family and career, but no one can do complete justice to both....

True enough, it is never a cakewalk for anyone, to maintain an even-steven approach to both their personal and professional lives. Is one fair to both - is a question that has no definite answer. A little “too much” into the family can jeopardize a career, the reverse being true as well. A man working for long hours a day, might have to miss his son'... Read More

STUDENT CORNER: Overseas Carrer Pathway For Physiotherapists-Persuing Graduate Studies In Canada - S.SRIKESAVAN SABAPATHY

Canada remains to be a very popular destination for Indian physiotherapists to pursue their graduate studies and research career. Universities that have a strong research back ground and world class faculty along with Canada’s encouraging policies towards those who graduate here are some of the main reasons.  There are however several factors that have to be considered before pursuing an academic or research career in Canada. Most of the graduate programs for physiotherapists in Ca... Read More

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