Equilibrium may be defined as the capacity to maintain the posture and spatial orientation at rest and during movement. There are three main systems responsible for the sensory input for maintenance of equilibrium visual, somatosensory and vestibular. At rest or on stimulation the afferent information from the three systems is coordinated and processed in the CNS to recognize the subject’s position. Result is, motor output is generated to maintain equilibrium.
The vestibular system has primary role in maintenance of balance, through the following functions, 1) Conduction of information to the CNS regarding linear and angular acceleration. 2) Help in visual orientation by eye muscle control. 3) Control of skeletal muscle tone which maintains adequate posture.
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